Sushi and zushi:
It comes the way how people describe the word 'sushi' ( 鮨 / 寿司
) whether phonetically transliterate exactly equall to the Japanese reading and sound, or understandable, comprehensive to others who do not know Japanese well, i.e. English speaking people.
There is a unique rule in Japanese that a word 'sushi' changes its sound to 'zushi' (an unvoiced consonant s
changes to voiced z
) when it makes a compound word with a preceding adjectival modifier word. Apparently, sushi [ すし
zushi [ ずし
], or su [ す
zu [ ず
], by an addition of [ ゛
], voice-mark to the Japanese kana-character that corresponds to its reading sound.
In general in a compound word, if the latter word begins with a consonant (either of /k/, /s/, /t/, /h/, /f/, /ch/, /sh/, /ts/) each of them changes as follows.
|k|| → ||g|
|s|| → ||z|
|t|| → ||d|
|h|| → ||b|
|f|| → ||b|
|ch|| → ||j|
|sh|| → ||j|
|ts|| → ||z|
For example, almost all sushi terms that end with suffixed-sushi, this rule is applied (cf. Sushi Glossary
|Nigiri|| + ||sushi|| —> ||Nigirizushi||(Hand-formed sushi)|
|Maki|| + ||sushi|| —> ||Makizushi||(Sushi roll)|
|Funa|| + ||sushi|| —> ||Funazushi||(Crucian carp sushi)|
|Inari|| + ||sushi|| —> ||Inarizushi||(Fried bean curd sushi)|
|Edomae|| + ||sushi|| —> ||Edomaezushi||(Edo-, Tokyo-style sushi)|
|Osaka|| + ||sushi|| —> ||Osakazushi||(Osaka-style sushi)|
|Ark shell, Red clam||Aka [あか] (red) + Kai [かい] (shell)||Akagai [あかがい]|
|Spotted plaice||Hoshi (star) + Karei (plaice)||Hoshigarei|
|Shark skin||Same (shark) + Kawa (skin)||Samegawa|
|Horsehead||Ama (sweet) + Tai (sea bream)||Amadai|
|Spring red sea bream||Sakura (cherry) + Tai (sea bream)||Sakuradai|
|Sole||Shita (toung) + Hirame (flaunder)||Shitabirame|
|Chopsticks||Wari (split) + Hashi (chopsticks)||Waribashi|
|Vinegar-mixture||Awase (combine) + Su (vinegar)||Awasezu|
Also, names of sushi bars and restaurants
If Mr. Aoki opens a sushi bar bearing his name, usually there are two alternatives, prefixed or suffixed with the word 'Sushi.'
|· Sushi Aoki|| ||鮨 青木||[すし あおき]|| prefix — no change|
| (Sushi Aoki|| ||寿司 青木||[すし あおき]|
|· Aokizushi|| ||青木鮨||[あおきずし]|| suffix — changed|
| (Aokizushi|| ||青木寿司||[あおきずし])|
This rule is grammatically called Rendaku
When you are in Japan
Ren_daku (連濁[れん_だく], lit. "sequential_voicing") is a phenomenon in Japanese morphology which governs the voicing of the initial consonant of the non-initial portion of a compound or prefixed word. Rendaku is a common but unpredictable phenomenon in modern Japanese. The "voicing" is not a strict change from voiceless to voiced sounds, but rather the action of adding a 'daku_ten' ( ◌゛: voiced_sound-mark, 濁点) to the first kana of the portion being altered. It is also known as "sequential voicing."
Rendaku can be seen in the following:
, or living in Japan, you'd better to use -zushi
terms, if you are interested in being regarded as one of sushi fleaks, or not a novice at a sushi bar or restaurant.